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county of edessa

Seleucus gave it the new name of Edessa, after the original name of the ancient capital of Macedonia. The oldest known dated Syriac manuscripts (AD 411 and 462), containing Greek patristic texts, come from Edessa. County Of Edessa Objectives Kill Enemy Lord ‘March the enemy eastwards and reinforce Bira. For its modern successor, see, Ancient city in upper Mesopotamia, modern day Urfa, Southeast Turkey, {Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine, Book 1 Chapter 13, Early centers of Christianity § Mesopotamia and the Parthian Empire, 10.1093/acref/9780198662778.001.0001/acref-9780198662778-e-11, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.vi.xiii.html}, "Jacob the Annotator: Jacob's Annotations to His Revised Translation of Severus' Cathedral Homilies", "La linguistique syriaque selon Jacques d'Édesse", "Ephraem, the Deacon of Edessa, and the Church of the Empire", "Christianity in Edessa and the Syriac-Speaking World: Mani, Bar Daysan, and Ephraem, the Struggle for Allegiance on the Aramean Frontier", "The Edessan Milieu and the Birth of Syriac", "Greek and Syriac in Edessa: From Ephrem to Rabbula (CE 363-435)", "Greek and Syriac in Fifth-Century Edessa: The Case of Bishop Hibas", Chelae on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, Chelae on the European coast of the Bosphorus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edessa&oldid=1000596642, Populated places established in the 4th century BC, Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Turkey, Archaeological sites in Southeastern Anatolia, Articles with dead external links from December 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles containing Kurdish-language text, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Articles containing Classical Syriac-language text, Articles containing Aramaic-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The anonymous writer of the story of "The Man of God", in the 5th century, which gave rise to the legend of St. Alexius, also known as, Schulz, Mathias, "Wegweiser ins Paradies,", This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 20:24. By 1566, though, the population had risen to an estimated 14,000 citizens. Before the fall, the Christians of Edessa had appealed for help to the west, an appeal later given some emotional propaganda by such Christian writers as Michael the Syrian (d. 1199 CE): Edessa remained a desert: a moving sight covered with a black garment, drunk with blood, infested by the very corpses of its sons and daughters! It is not clear whether Baldwin issued any coins during his reign as count of Edessa, which lasted until 1100 when he became the king of Jerusalem. There are some portions of the city’s fortification walls still in situ and many tombs and mosaics from Late Antiquity and early-medieval Edessa. The religion practised in Osroene was pagan, but much closer to that of Parthia than Rome. Orpheus Mosaic: Edessa/Urda/Haleplibahçe Mosaics. As metropolis of Osroene, Edessa had eleven suffragan sees. The cathedral of Edessa was described by the 10th-century CE Arab scholar al-Maqdidis as "a wonder of the world" (Bagnall, 2306). The county was established under dubious circumstances by Baldwin of Boulogne in March 1098 CE. Remarkably Preserved 1,800-Year-Old Mosaic Depicting the Dead Is Unearthed in Turkey, The earliest record of a Christian church at, According to Theophanes, a Jewish merchant transports the pieces of the fallen, The Emirs of Mayyafariqin and Harran attack the, The Muslim Seljuk Turks, led by Imad ad-Din Zangi, capture, Astrological Works of Theophilus of Edessa. It resisted the attack of Shapur I (r. 240–270) in his third invasion of Roman territory. It existed from 1098 to 1146. County of Edessa 1135 locator-es.svg 787 × 959; 130 KB. The city, nevertheless, remained an important Christian centre, especially in terms of translations, manuscript production, and education. Edessa is not now to be found on maps of the Near East; instead there is Urfa, the Turkish name for the former Christian city lying in the upper region of the Euphrates valley some two hundred and fifty kilometres from the Mediterranean. image/svg+xml Edessa Melitene Antiochia Samosata Tarso Aleppo Amida Germanicia Edessa Melitene Antiochia Samosata Tarso Aleppo Amida Germanicia [18][19][20] Under him Christianity became the official religion of the kingdom. An unsuccessful Sasanian siege occurred in 544. Meanwhile, the Muslim army, on hearing the news of the change in power and the fall of Antioch a day earlier after a long siege, withdrew. Famous residents included Joshua the Stylite, the chronicler of 6-7th century CE regional history, and Theodore of Edessa, the legendary missionary bishop (c. 776 - c. 856 CE). Around 1078 CE, the Seljuks created the Sultanate of Rum, but the gifted general Philaretos Brachamios managed to keep Edessa in Byzantine hands. Around 23 different monasteries and churches are known to have existed in the city, with at least as many again just outside town; these attracted many pilgrims. With the capital only lightly defended, Zengi redirected his army, invading and capturing the city after the Siege of Edessa in 1144. In the 12th century CE, Edessa, with its wealth and rich history, attracted the attention of Imad ad-Din Zangi (r. 1127-1146 CE), the Muslim independent ruler of Mosul and Aleppo in Syria. Edessa. During the Late Antiquity, it became a prominent center of Christian learning and seat of the Catechetical School of Edessa. The young Joscelin was ransomed for Baldwin II, king of Jerusalem in 1124. The 260 Battle of Edessa saw Shapur defeat the Roman emperor Valerian (r. 253–260) and capture him alive, an unprecedented disaster for the Roman state. The Turkic Zengid dynasty's lands were eventually absorbed by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 after the 1514 Battle of Chaldiran. Cartwright, Mark. [4], The Syrian town was refounded as a Hellenistic military settlement by Seleucus I Nicator in c. 303 BC, and named Edessa after the ancient capital of Macedonia, perhaps due to its abundant water, just like its Macedonian eponym. The Peregrinatio Silviae (or Etheriae)[24] gives an account of the many sanctuaries at Edessa about 388. The County of Edessa, one of the Crusader states set up after the success of the First Crusade, was centred on the city, the crusaders having seized the city from the Seljuks. The realm rejoices as Paradox Interactive announces the launch of Crusader Kings III, the latest entry in the publisher’s grand strategy role-playing game franchise. Further, Edessa was a strategically important shield to Antioch further west and a strong platform from which to launch raids deeper into Muslim-held Mesopotamia. This venerable and famous image, which was certainly at Edessa in 544, and of which there is an ancient copy in the Vatican Library, was looted and brought to the West by the Republic of Venice in 1207 following the Fourth Crusade. The Mandylion was taken from Edessa in 944 CE when John Kourkouas took it in exchange for lifting his siege of the city with the Byzantine emperor, Romanos I (r. 920-944 CE), officially promising not to attack it again. The city is now known as 'Urfa, or Şanlıurfa, a city in Turkey. EVERY county of Ireland has its own coat of arms, whether officially granted or via heraldic tradition. Its seat was a city of Edessa present-day Şanlıurfa, Turkey. In the slow Byzantine period, Edessa became the centre of intellectual life within the Syriac Orthodox Church. In 1146, the city was briefly recaptured by the crusaders and lost after a few days. [12] This text is the earliest to allege that a painting (or icon) of Jesus was enclosed with the reply to Abgar and that the city of Edessa was prophesied never to fall. The Ayyubid Sultanate's leader Saladin acquired the town from the Zengids in 1182. The image would also inspire the design of coins of the Byzantine Empire. In response to the fall of Edessa and the general threat to the Latin states in the Levant, Pope Eugenius III (r. 1145-1153 CE) formally called for a crusade, what is now known as the Second Crusade, on 1 December 1145 CE. During the Late Antiquity, it became a prominent center of Christian learning and seat of the Catechetical School of Edessa. [17] However, various sources confirm that the Abgar who embraced the Christian faith was Abgar IX. 16 Jan 2021. Edessa (/ɪˈdɛsə/; Ancient Greek: Ἔδεσσα, romanized: Édessa) was an ancient city (polis) in Upper Mesopotamia, founded during the Hellenistic period by King Seleucus I Nicator (r. 305–281 BC), founder of the Seleucid Empire. The county survived until the 1144 Siege of Edessa, in which Imad al-Din Zengi, founder of the Zengid dynasty, captured the city and, according to Matthew of Edessa, killed many of the Edessenes. Under Roman domination many martyrs suffered at Edessa: Sharbel and Barsamya, under Decius; Sts. A city within the Seleucid Empire, then capital of the kingdom of Osroene, then a Roman provincial city, Edessa found itself perennially caught between empires, especially between Rome and Parthia. The territory of the County of Edessa straddled the middle section of the Euphrates River, contained several important castles such as Ranculat and Ravendan, and provided valuable foodstuffs for the Latin East, as the Crusader-created states were known. The city once again benefitted from its favourable position on trade routes, being on the only official route between the Roman and Parthian Empires (247 BCE - 224 CE). During the Crusades, it was the capital of the County of Edessa. [15][better source needed], According to a legend first reported by Eusebius in the fourth century, King Abgar V was converted by Thaddeus of Edessa,[16][better source needed] who was one of the seventy-two disciples, sent to him by "Judas, who is also called Thomas". The victory entrenched Zengi as leader of the Muslims in the Holy Land, a mantle that would be taken up by his son Nur ad-Din and then by Saladin. (ibid, 231). The origin of the name of Osroene itself is probably related to Orhay. The city was ruled shortly thereafter by Marwanids. This was the final great achievement of Romanus's reign. The city was situated on the banks of the Daysan River (Latin: Scirtus; Turkish: Kara Koyun), a tributary of the Khabur, and was defended by Şanlıurfa Castle, the high central citadel. [3], Edessa was rebuilt by Justin I (r. 518–527), and renamed Justinopolis after him. [29] The Sultanate of Rûm took Edessa in June 1234, but sometime in late 1234 or 1235, the Ayyubid sultan Al-Kamil re-acquired it. … The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, differing from the other Crusader states in that it was landlocked and not on particularly good terms with its closest neighbor, the Principality of Antioch.Half of the county, including its capital, was located east of the Euphrates, far to the east of the others, rendering it particularly vulnerable. Among the illustrious disciples of the School of Edessa, Bardaisan (154–222), a schoolfellow of Abgar IX, deserves special mention for his role in creating Christian religious poetry, and whose teaching was continued by his son Harmonius and his disciples. No one can successfully resist you in war, since God is with you. Baldwin I also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the first king of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death. Edessa was one of the largest of the Crusader states in terms of territory. [5][6][7][8] It was later renamed Callirrhoe or Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Ancient Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Καλλιρρόης; Latin: Antiochia ad Callirhoem) in the 2nd century BC (found on Edessan coins struck by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, r. 175–164 BC). Thence came to us in the second century the famous Peshitta, or Syriac translation of the Old Testament; also Tatian's Diatessaron, which was compiled about 172 and in common use until Rabbula, Bishop of Edessa (412–435), forbade its use. Zebra Whisperer: Haleplibahce Mosaics of Edessa. The Byzantine Empire regained control in 1031, though it did not remain under their rule long and changed hands several times before the end of the century. Ancient History Encyclopedia. But why didn't the county call itself a duchy? According to the late-6th-century Frankish hagiographer and bishop Gregory of Tours, the relics had themselves been brought from India, while in Edessa an annual fair (and alleviation of customs duties) was held at the church in July in the saint's honour (the feast of St Thomas was observed on 3 July) during which, Gregory alleged, water would appear in shallow wells and flies disappeared. Moreover, Nestorian bishops are said to have resided at Edessa as early as the 6th century. Edessa became one of the frontier cities of the province of Osroene and lay close to the border of the Sasanian Empire. The offices they held pertained to the management of the count's household and the military defence of the county. Byzantine Empire, 1025 CEby Necropotame (CC BY-SA). The fall of the crusader city of Edessa to the Muslims was the spark that ignited the Second Crusade. It seems that the Mandylion story was based on the actual conversion to Christianity of a later king of the same name, Abgar IX (r. 179-216 CE). Edessa became the most important bishopric in Syria. Cite This Work We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Further, the image on the miracle icon, probably the first relic its kind, was copied in many wall-paintings and domes in churches around Christendom as it became the standard representation known as the Pantokrator (All-Ruler) with Christ full frontal holding a Gospel book in his left hand and performing a blessing with his right. A Christian council was held at Edessa as early as 197. Nur ad-Din (r. 1146-1174 CE), Zangi’s successor after his death in September 1146 CE, defeated the Latin leader Joscelin II’s attempt to retake Edessa. [3], A more elaborate version of the Abgar Legend is recorded in the early 5th-century Syriac Doctrine of Addai, purportedly based on the state archives of Edessa, and including both a pseudepigraphal letter from Abgar V to Tiberius (r. 14–37) and the emperor's supposed reply. As the power of Rome grew, Osroene became a dependency within the Roman Empire, with Pompey the Great (106-48 BCE) notably granting King Abgar II (r. 68-53 BCE) an enlarged territory. Following are some of the famous individuals connected with Edessa: Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}37°09′N 38°48′E / 37.150°N 38.800°E / 37.150; 38.800, This article is about the city in Mesopotamia. It later became capital of the Kingdom of Osroene, and continued as capital of the Roman province of Osroene. Edessa was at first more or less under the protectorate of the Parthians, then of Tigranes of Armenia, Edessa was Armenian Mesopotamia's capital city, then from the time of Pompey under the Roman Empire. The Roman soldier and Latin historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the city's formidable fortifications and how in 359 it successfully resisted the attack of Shapur II (r. The Arab sources give a rather different view, such as the following note by Ibn al-Athir (1160-1232 CE): When Zangi inspected the city he liked it and realized that it would not be sound policy to reduce the place to ruins…The city was restored to its former state, and Zangi installed a garrison to defend it. In the late Byzantine period, Edessa became the centre of intellectual life within the Syriac Orthodox Church. The Mandylion icon was actually a scarf or shroud which was considered to have on it the image of Jesus Christ. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around Edessa, a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity. The columns were once topped with statues of Abgar VIII and his queen but date to the 3rd-4th century CE as indicated by a Syriac inscription on one of the bases. Zebra Whisperer: Haleplibahce Mosaics of Edessaby Ronnie Jones III (CC BY-NC-SA). When Constantinople was sacked in 1204 CE during the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE), the Mandylion was taken as a prize to France, where it was ultimately destroyed during the chaos of the French Revolution (1789-1799 CE). The establishment of the crusader “county” of Edessa is often ― at least implicitly ― treated as a “conquest.” The impression conveyed is that the crusaders (or Franks) invaded, seized control of territory by force, and established a state (in this case styled a “County”) that was controlled by Latin elites.

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