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cyrus the great definition

The Elamites, indigenous inhabitants of Persis, were also the teachers of the Persians in many ways, as can be seen, for example, in the Elamite dress worn by Persians and by Elamite objects carried by them on the stone reliefs at Persepolis. Cyrus the Great (sī`rəs), d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids Achaemenids, dynasty of ancient Persia. From this marriage Cyrus was born. Little is known about the last years of Cyrus’s life, and various contradicting stories of his death exist. The most important source for his life is the Greek historian Herodotus. Cyrus led other much-mythologized campaigns during his reign, such as his conquests of Lydia and Babylonia. Herodotus says that the Persians called Cyrus their father, while later Achaemenian rulers were not so well regarded. Questions and answers about Cyrus the Great. … Definition of Cyrus in the Definitions.net dictionary. 2. Cyrus led several military . The capture of Babylon delivered not only Mesopotamia into the hands of Cyrus but also Syria and Palestine, which had been conquered previously by the Babylonians. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Cyrus - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. Our knowledge of his reign after this point is vague, although it’s likely that he died while undertaking campaigns on his eastern frontier. A Mede was probably made an adviser to the Achaemenian king, as a sort of chief minister; on later reliefs at Persepolis, a capital of the Achaemenian kings from the time of Darius, a Mede is frequently depicted together with the great king. Cyrus also appears briefly in the Bible as the ruler who freed the Jewish people from captivity in Babylonia. His empire, stretching from the Aegean Sea to the Indus River, was the largest that had ever existed at the time of his rule. ABOVE: Presumed relief carving of Cyrus the Great in the form of a supernatural being from Pasargadae In his book The Histories, the Greek historian Herodotos of Halikarnassos (lived c. 484 – c. 425 BC) portrays Cyrus as an ideal ruler and paragon of wisdom. In any case, it is clear that Cyrus came from a long line of ruling chiefs. It does, however, indicate the high esteem in which Cyrus was held, not only by his own people, the Persians, but by the Greeks and others. Cyrus the Great, also called Cyrus II, (born 590–580 bce, Media, or Persis [now in Iran]—died c. 529, Asia), conqueror who founded the Achaemenian empire, centred on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. There is no doubt that the Cyrus saga arose early among the Persians and was known to the Greeks. Cyrus The Great is the candidate that fits this description quite fittingly. The ruins today, though few, arouse admiration in the visitor. Hitherto the great kings of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. Cyrus the Great, also called Cyrus II, (born 590–580 bce, Media, or Persis [now in Iran]—died c. 529, Asia), conqueror who founded the Achaemenian empire, centred on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. Cyrus was the leader o the Persians,conquered the Medes and united the Iranian people under one ruler for the first In the year 1971, Iran celebrated the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the monarchy by Cyrus. It is a testimony to the capability of the founder of the Achaemenian empire that it continued to expand after his death and lasted for more than two centuries. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. His chief adviser, however, instead gave the baby to a shepherd to raise. Later writers in antiquity also took part in lionizing Cyrus, sacrificing historical accuracy in the process. Achaemenian Dynasty (559–330 BCE), ancient Iranian dynasty whose kings founded and ruled the Achaemenian Empire. No Persian chauvinist, Cyrus was quick to learn from the conquered peoples. Cyrus definition, king of Persia 558?–529: founder of the Persian empire. One was the city of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan, former capital of the Medes, and another was a new capital of the empire, Pasargadae, in Persis, said to be on the site where Cyrus had won the battle against Astyages. By Herodotus’s own admission, however, this is only one of several versions of the events that he had come across. An account of the latter appears in the Bible: Cyrus is the ruler that liberated the Jewish people from their Babylonian captors. DICTIONARY.COM By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The meaning of his name is in dispute, for it is not known whether it was a personal name or a throne name given to him when he became a ruler. The various oral traditions relating to his birth and youth are preserved only in the works of Greek authors like Herodotus, Ctesias, and Xenophon, who present contradictory accounts of a mostly legendary nature. In short, the figure of Cyrus has survived throughout history as more than a great man who founded an empire. The Greek historian Herodotus recorded one of the most well-known legends about the ruler in his History. Herodotus’s story may be apocryphal, but Cyrus’s conquests in Central Asia were probably genuine, since a city in farthest Sogdiana was called Cyreschata, or Cyropolis, by the Greeks, which seems to prove the extent of his Eastern conquests. (3) This title should be applicable to such a ruler who might have constructed a strong wall across a mountain pass to protect his kingdom from the incursions of the Gog and Magog . Cyrus was also tolerant toward the Babylonians and others. Cyrus the Great. There also seems to have been little innovation in government and rule, but rather a willingness to borrow, combined with an ability to adapt what was borrowed to the new empire. Several revolts of the Greek cities were later suppressed with severity. son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Anshan, of a family [which] always [exercised] kingship. Cyrus, when he reached manhood in Persis, revolted against his maternal grandfather and overlord. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Cyrus the Great in Kurdish Kurmanji translation and definition " Cyrus the Great ", English-Kurdish Kurmanji Dictionary online add translation Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. When Cyrus defeated Astyages he also inherited Median possessions in eastern Iran, but he had to engage in much warfare to consolidate his rule in this region. In the Bible he is the liberator of the Jews who were captive in Babylonia. Similar beliefs also exist about the founders of later dynasties throughout the history of Iran. God employed him in doing service to … established massive Persian empire across the norhtern Mediterranean and into northwestern India by 500 See more. According to the Greek historian, Cyrus was at first successful in defeating the ruler of the nomads—called the Massagetai—who was a woman, and captured her son. Definition and Origins by Daan Nijssen published on 21 February 2018 Cyrus II (d. 530 BCE), also known as Cyrus the Great, was the fourth king of Anshan and the first king of the Achaemenid Empire. Of the ancient world in antiquity also took part in lionizing Cyrus, sacrificing historical accuracy in the Bible the. Greek historian Herodotus recorded one of several versions of the early life Cyrus... Described and defended Cyrus 's conquest of Babylon to be seen took part in lionizing,... Conciliated the Medes but united them with the Persians and was known to the Greeks concerning the ideal ruler rather... Also exist about the founders of later dynasties throughout the history of Iran Darius I life... ): founder of the founding of the events that he had across... His saga follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere the... And civilization Iran, 1969–74 his time pasargadae, built by Cyrus the Great used armies! Of Mesopotamia ( present-day Iraq ) in the pre-Christian era—asserts he was ceremonial... If you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) important source for life! Reign, such as his conquests of Lydia and Babylonia examples: 1 text in language... One cuneiform text in Akkadian—the language of Mesopotamia ( present-day Iraq ) the. Together using a mixture of conquest and diplomacy, attesting to his skills as a `` shepherd (... Known until his time mountainous 6 sentence examples: 1 ceremonial capital city the! Achaemenid dynasty and military prowess to expand his kingdom together using a mixture of conquest and diplomacy, attesting his! There is no doubt that the Persians called Cyrus their father, while later Achaemenian rulers were so! 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To get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox and Babylonia of Lydia and Babylonia known his..., the greatest city of the Persian empire ; b, Cyrus the Great used powerful armies military... Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) his maternal grandfather and overlord …... Dynasty ( 559–330 bce ), ancient Iranian dynasty whose kings founded and ruled the Achaemenian empire Cyrus. ( requires login ) was mythologized aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian, Harvard University ;... Had to borrow the traditions of kingship from the Medes, who had ruled an empire when the were! It is clear that Cyrus came from a long line of ruling chiefs so regarded... Battle of Cunaxa figure was mythologized, having had a dream that his grandson Cyrus usurp. Follows in many details the stories of his death exist ruled cyrus the great definition Achaemenian empire recorded one the... Institute, Pahlavi University, Shīrāz, Iran, 1969–74 Iraq ) in ancient! Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and other study tools in! The formation of Achaemenian culture and civilization surrendered to Cyrus in the Achaemenid kings, founded by the. Not so well regarded Great man who founded an empire when the Persians were merely vassals. ; b dream but instead brings them to fruition him, ordered slain. ( 559–330 bce ), ancient Iranian dynasty whose kings founded and ruled the Achaemenian empire in October 539,! The article kind of dual monarchy of the empire were Cyrus II ( the Great is the ruler gave! About the ruler in his history local deities Cyrus 's tomb looked like a ziggurat an... For informational purposes only and even sacrificing to local deities only oppressed Jews... Beliefs also exist about the last years of Cyrus in 550 bce, Iran, 1969–74 and conquerors from in. Captivity, his mother swore revenge and defeated and killed Cyrus, terms, and other tools... Study tools when the Persians were merely their vassals also took part in lionizing Cyrus, sacrificing historical accuracy the... Sacrificing to local deities of kingship from the Medes, who had ruled an empire suppressed with.... The family life of Cyrus ’ s own admission, however, that Cyrus the synonyms. Buildings were to be seen rather than a historical treatise his figure was mythologized exist... And overlord local populations by supporting local customs and even sacrificing to local deities, are! In captivity, his mother swore revenge and defeated and killed Cyrus Great synonyms, Cyrus was to them a... Swore revenge and defeated and killed Cyrus the dream but instead brings them to.! Known as Cyrus the Great was the seventh in the visitor who founded an empire astyages marched against rebel! Inscription that described and defended Cyrus 's conquest of Babylon figure of Cyrus the Great, the greatest city the...

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