how many countries did the british empire rule
Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: the South African Republic or Transvaal Republic (1852–1877; 1881–1902) and the Orange Free State (1854–1902). In a lecture given in 2011, Professor Richard Evans of Gresham College, describes what he sees as ‘ the innate sense of the superiority of the British over the inhabitants of other countries’ . 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire. , The British mandate in Palestine, where an Arab majority lived alongside a Jewish minority, presented the British with a similar problem to that of India. The British empire in 1850. Settlers in Ireland from Great Britain have left their mark in the form of divided nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland. For many British Victorians, India symbolized the Empire. Later that year, Raleigh founded the Roanoke Colony on the coast of present-day North Carolina, but lack of supplies caused the colony to fail.  Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica, and a foreign policy of "splendid isolation". This wording was ambiguous as to whether it referred to European countries invaded by Germany and Italy, or the peoples colonised by European nations, and would later be interpreted differently by the British, Americans, and nationalist movements. Spain ceded Florida to Britain.  The contributions of Australian and New Zealand troops during the 1915 Gallipoli Campaign against the Ottoman Empire had a great impact on the national consciousness at home, and marked a watershed in the transition of Australia and New Zealand from colonies to nations in their own right. In 1982, the last legal link between Canada and Britain was severed by the Canada Act 1982, which was passed by the British parliament, formally patriating the Canadian Constitution. This rivalry in Central Asia came to be known as the "Great Game". The Battle of Plassey in 1757, in which the British defeated the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies, left the British East India Company in control of Bengal and as the major military and political power in India. This period, until the loss of the Thirteen Colonies after the American War of Independence towards the end of the 18th century, has been referred to by some historians as the "First British Empire". Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in 1810.  Northern Ireland, consisting of six of the 32 Irish counties which had been established as a devolved region under the 1920 Government of Ireland Act, immediately exercised its option under the treaty to retain its existing status within the United Kingdom. , Britain's declaration of war against Nazi Germany in September 1939 included the Crown colonies and India but did not automatically commit the Dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Newfoundland and South Africa.  India became the empire's most valuable possession, "the Jewel in the Crown", and was the most important source of Britain's strength. It is important to note that the advent of British colonization of Africa coincided with the era of scientific racism as represented by social Darwinism (survival of the fittest). "Constitutional Amendment in Canada".  The UN General Assembly subsequently voted for a plan to partition Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state.  To the three colonies that had been granted independence in the 1950s—Sudan, the Gold Coast and Malaya—were added nearly ten times that number during the 1960s.  The British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council still serves as the highest court of appeal for several former colonies in the Caribbean and Pacific. The Darien scheme was a financial disaster for Scotland—a quarter of Scottish capital was lost in the enterprise—and ended Scottish hopes of establishing its own overseas empire.  In the process the Voortrekkers clashed repeatedly with the British, who had their own agenda with regard to colonial expansion in South Africa and to the various native African polities, including those of the Sotho and the Zulu nations.  As far as Britain was concerned, defeats inflicted by Russia on Persia and Turkey demonstrated its imperial ambitions and capabilities and stoked fears in Britain of an overland invasion of India. The British Mandate for Palestine officially terminated at midnight on 15 May 1948 as the State of Israel declared independence and the 1948 Arab-Israeli War broke out, during which the territory of the former Mandate was partitioned between Israel and the surrounding Arab states. With regard to New Zealand, the British Parliament retained the power to pass legislation applying to New Zealand with the New Zealand Parliament's consent. The British Empire ruled over many countries in Africa, beginning in 1870. The Irish Republican Army simultaneously began a guerrilla war against the British administration. What Were the Countries of the British Empire.  The British Parliament also had the power to pass laws extending to Canada at Canadian request. Since the Act of Union in 1707, the United Kingdom has ruled vast swaths of land across the world.  In 1701, England, Portugal and the Netherlands sided with the Holy Roman Empire against Spain and France in the War of the Spanish Succession, which lasted for thirteen years.  In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain; so that by the time of the Great Exhibition in 1851, the country was described as the "workshop of the world". , Two years later, the Royal African Company was inaugurated, receiving from King Charles a monopoly of the trade to supply slaves to the British colonies of the Caribbean.  Most former British colonies and protectorates are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of equal members, comprising a population of around 2.2 billion people. Much of Europe, a continent that had dominated the world for several centuries, was in ruins, and host to the armies of the United States and the Soviet Union, who now held the balance of global power. , British imperial strength was underpinned by the steamship and the telegraph, new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the empire. Military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied heavily on its empire. In 1746, the Spanish and British began peace talks, with the King of Spain agreeing to stop all attacks on British shipping; however, in the Treaty of Madrid Britain lost its slave trading rights in South and Central America. , After the Fall of France in June 1940, Britain and the empire stood alone against Germany, until the German invasion of Greece on 7 April 1941. , During the 19th century, Britain and the Russian Empire vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining Ottoman Empire, Qajar dynasty and Qing Dynasty. Initially the Canal was opposed by the British; but once opened, its strategic value was quickly recognised and became the "jugular vein of the Empire". How many countries did the British Empire ever rule? , In 1603, James VI, King of Scots, ascended (as James I) to the English throne and in 1604 negotiated the Treaty of London, ending hostilities with Spain. 10.  The parliaments of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, the Irish Free State and Newfoundland were now independent of British legislative control, they could nullify British laws and Britain could no longer pass laws for them without their consent. , The Caribbean initially provided England's most important and lucrative colonies, but not before several attempts at colonisation failed.  The events at Suez wounded British national pride, leading one MP to describe it as "Britain's Waterloo" and another to suggest that the country had become an "American satellite". Home rule was supported by the British Prime minister, William Gladstone, who hoped that Ireland might follow in Canada's footsteps as a Dominion within the empire, but his 1886 Home Rule bill was defeated in Parliament. By 1670 there were British American colonies in New England, Virginia, and Maryland and settlements in the Bermudas, Honduras, Antigua, Barbados, and Nova Scotia. Plans for a post-war division of the Ottoman Empire, which had joined the war on Germany's side, were secretly drawn up by Britain and France under the 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement. There is also a list of British Overseas Terrotries that are still ruled by the United KIngdom.  In 1620, Plymouth was founded as a haven for Puritan religious separatists, later known as the Pilgrims. The Dominions themselves also acquired mandates of their own: the Union of South Africa gained South West Africa (modern-day Namibia), Australia gained New Guinea, and New Zealand Western Samoa. Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in 1882. In 1982, Britain's resolve in defending its remaining overseas territories was tested when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, acting on a long-standing claim that dated back to the Spanish Empire. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire.  The Protestant Reformation turned England and Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. At its peak, the British Empire was composed of about one-fifth of the entire world's population and covered about a quarter of the world's total land mass.  In 1875, the Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli bought the indebted Egyptian ruler Isma'il Pasha's 44% shareholding in the Suez Canal for £4 million (equivalent to £380 million in 2019). , On 1 January 1984, Brunei, Britain's last remaining Asian protectorate, was granted independence. , The changing world order that the war had brought about, in particular the growth of the United States and Japan as naval powers, and the rise of independence movements in India and Ireland, caused a major reassessment of British imperial policy.  By that time over 50,000 British military personnel were still stationed in the Far East, including 30,000 in Singapore. Alongside the formal control it exerted over its o…  Millions of Muslims crossed from India to Pakistan and Hindus vice versa, and violence between the two communities cost hundreds of thousands of lives. It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries.  Britain was again the beneficiary of peace treaties: France ceded the Ionian Islands, Malta (which it had occupied in 1797 and 1798 respectively), Mauritius, Saint Lucia, Seychelles, and Tobago; Spain ceded Trinidad; the Netherlands Guyana, and the Cape Colony. As well as the Empire having a huge impact on the colonies and dominions of empire, the mother country was changed by the very existence of the British Empire. Initially, interaction between the indigenous Māori population and Europeans was limited to the trading of goods. Victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in Central Asia. How did a small country like Britain rule so much territory? , With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, goods produced by slavery became less important to the British economy. If memory serves, at it's peak, the British Empire was about 1/4 of the land area of the world, and something like 1/3 the population. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Amid the fighting, British forces continued to withdraw from Israel, with the last British troops departing from Haifa on 30 June 1948. , In 1869 the Suez Canal opened under Napoleon III, linking the Mediterranean with the Indian Ocean. In the British Caribbean, the percentage of the population of African descent rose from 25% in 1650 to around 80% in 1780, and in the Thirteen Colonies from 10% to 40% over the same period (the majority in the southern colonies). All the Countries We've Ever Invaded: And the Few We Never Got Round To is styled as a ‘lighthearted' look. The US declared war, the War of 1812, and invaded Canadian territory. The situation was complicated further by the increasing Cold War rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union.  Newfoundland reverted to colonial status in 1933, suffering from financial difficulties during the Great Depression. This agreement was not divulged to the Sharif of Mecca, who the British had been encouraging to launch an Arab revolt against their Ottoman rulers, giving the impression that Britain was supporting the creation of an independent Arab state. The act ended the need for British involvement in changes to the Canadian constitution. The British Empire was one of the largest colonial empires in history, which is a masterful feat, given the country's comparatively small size. Over the course of Britain's existence, the country has invaded nine out of 10 of the world's countries, or all but 22 of them in total.  The realisation that Britain could not defend its entire empire pushed Australia and New Zealand, which now appeared threatened by Japanese forces, into closer ties with the United States and, ultimately, the 1951 ANZUS Pact. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire. Attacked and occupied, including 30,000 in Singapore South Africa became self-governing.. Slavery was the largest Empire in Asia without any serious international rival, other than Russia in Central.. 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